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About

This website started out as a showcase for one of my hobbies, photography and was originally named ‘fossil shot fotos’, but I shortened it to ‘fshotf’. I have currently removed the photo pages, but I may add them back again...




I added a section for my smart car after buying one towards the end of 2009. The idea being to record its history, problems and modifications. These pages have gained many hits over the years, with people looking at some of the modifications I made to my car, but there are now just the two most popular modifications shown.




More recently, I have added Engineering and Project sections. As an active member of the Ramsgate and District Model Engineering Club, I enjoy building 'quirky' 5" gauge locomotives. I don't have the engineering skills or patience to build live steam locos, so all mine will be battery powered, but future ones may have a steam outline...


Engineering

Gear Cutting Calculators

DP - Mod Gear Conversion Table

... Circular Pitch ...
DP Inch mm MOD
1 3.1416 79.797 25.40
1.016 3.0 76.20 25
1.0583 2.9685 75.398 24
1.1546 2.7209 69.115 22
1.27 2.4737 62.832 20
1.4111 2.2263 56.549 18
1.5875 1.9790 50.266 16
1.6933 1.8553 47.124 15
1.1843 1.7316 43.982 14
1.9538 1.6079 40.841 13
2 1.5708 39.898 12.70
2.1166 1.4843 37.699 12
2.3091 1.3605 34.559 11
2.54 1.2369 31.416 10
2.8219 1.1133 28.274 9
3 1.042 26.599 8.47
3.175 0.9895 25.133 8
3.6285 0.8976 21.991 7
4 0.7854 19.949 6.35
4.2333 0.7421 18.850 6
5 0.6283 15.959 5.08
5.08 0.6184 15.708 5
6 0.5236 13.299 4.23
6.3499 0.4947 12.567 4
7 0.4488 11.400 3.63
8 0.3927 9.975 3.18
8.4666 0.3711 9.425 3
9 0.3591 8.866 2.82
10 0.3142 7.980 2.54
11 0.2856 7.254 2.31
12 0.2618 6.650 2.12
12.700 0.2474 6.283 2
13 0.2417 6.138 1.95
14 0.2244 5.700 1.81
14.514 0.2165 5.498 1.75
15 0.2094 5.320 1.693
16 0.1964 4.987 1.588
16.933 0.1855 4.712 1.5
18 0.1745 4.433 1.411
20 0.1571 3.990 1.270
20.319 0.1546 3.917 1.25
22 0.1428 3.627 1.155
24 0.1309 3.325 1.058
25.40 0.1237 3.142 1
28 0.1122 2.850 0.9071
30 0.1047 2.660 0.8467
31.750 0.0989 2.513 0.8
32 0.0982 2.494 0.7938
34 0.0924 2.347 0.7471
36 0.0873 2.217 0.7056
36.28 0.0866 2.199 0.7
38 0.0827 2.100 0.6684
40 0.0785 1.995 0.6350
45 0.0698 1.773 0.5644
48 0.0655 1.662 0.5292
50 0.0628 1.596 0.5080
50.8 0.0618 1.571 0.5
63.5 0.0495 1.257 0.4

DP Spur Gears

Imperial (DP) Gears
Enter Number of teeth:
Enter DP:
 
Pitch Diameter - ":
Outside Diameter - ":
Addendum - ":
Working Depth - ":
Whole Depth - ": ... up to 20 DP
Whole Depth - ": ... over 20 DP
Index Circle: based on 40:1 standard indexing plates
Dividing Head Handle Turns: 'N/A' means standard plates do not work -
+ Number of holes: only coded for up to 150 teeth...

MOD Spur Gears

Metric (Mod) Gears
Enter Number of teeth:
Enter Mod:
 
   
Pitch Diameter - mm:
Outside Diameter - mm:
Addendum - mm:
Working Depth - mm:
Whole Depth - mm:
Index Circle: based on 40:1 standard indexing plates
Dividing Head Handle Turns: 'N/A' means standard plates do not work -
+ Number of holes: only coded for up to 150 teeth...
DP equivalent:

Gear Meshing Distance

Metric (Mod) Gears
Enter Mod:
Enter Number of teeth - gear 1:
Enter Number of teeth - gear 2:
 
Gear centre distance - mm:

Imperial (DP) Gears
Enter DP:
Enter Number of teeth - gear 1:
Enter Number of teeth - gear 2:
 
Gear centre distance - ":

90º DP 1:1 Bevel Gears

Enter Number of teeth on gears:
DP:
 
Pitch Diameter of Gear:
Outside Diameter of Small End of Gear - ":
Face Width of Gear - Less than 33% of Pitch Cone Length - Max size - ": Adjust if necessary and 
Outside Diameter of Large End of Gear - ":
Large End DP:
Use Cutter for: teeth
Second Cut Offset - ":
Index Circle: based on 40:1 standard indexing plates
Dividing Head Handle Turns: 'N/A' means standard plates do not work
+ Number of holes: only coded for up to 150 teeth...

90º Unequal DP Bevel Gears

Enter Number of teeth on gear 1:
Enter Number of teeth on gear 2:
DP:
 
Ratio:
Pitch Circle Diameter of Gear 1:
Pitch Circle Diameter of Gear 2:
Pitch Diameter of Gear:
Outside Diameter of Small End of Gear - ":
Face Width of Gear - Less than 33% of Pitch Cone Length - Max size - ": Adjust if necessary and 
Outside Diameter of Large End of Gear - ":
Large End DP:
Use Cutter for: teeth
Second Cut Offset - ":
Index Circle: based on 40:1 standard indexing plates
Dividing Head Handle Turns: 'N/A' means standard plates do not work
+ Number of holes: only coded for up to 150 teeth...

Involute Gear Cutters

Cutter References.

Cutter 1 will cut 135 teeth to Rack
Cutter 2 will cut 55 teeth to 134
Cutter 3 will cut 35 teeth to 54T
Cutter 4 will cut 26 teeth to 34T
Cutter 5 will cut 21 teeth to 25T
Cutter 6 will cut 17 teeth to 20T
Cutter 7 will cut 14 teeth to 16T
Cutter 8 will cut 12 teeth to 13T

Indexing Table for 40:1 Dividing Head

No. Divisions Circle Turns Holes
2 Any 20 -
3 15 13 5
4 Any 10 -
5 Any 8 -
6 15 6 10
7 21 5 15
8 Any 5 -
9 18 4 8
10 Any 4 -
11 33 3 21
12 15 3 5
13 39 3 3
14 21 2 18
15 15 2 10
16 16 2 8
17 17 2 6
18 18 2 4
19 19 2 2
20 Any 2 -
21 21 1 19
22 33 1 27
23 23 1 17
24 18 1 12
25 15 1 9
26 39 1 21
27 27 1 13
28 21 1 9
29 29 1 11
30 15 1 5
31 31 1 9
32 16 1 4
33 33 1 7
34 17 1 3
35 21 1 3
36 18 1 2
37 37 1 3
38 19 1 1
39 39 1 1
40 Any 1 -
41 41 - 40
42 21 - 20
43 43 - 40
44 33 - 30
45 18 - 16
46 23 - 20
47 47 - 40
48 18 - 15
49 49 - 40
50 15 - 12
52 39 - 30
54 27 - 20
55 33 - 24
56 21 - 15
58 29 - 20
60 15 - 10
62 31 - 20
64 16 - 10
65 39 - 24
66 33 - 20
68 17 - 10
70 21 - 12
72 18 - 10
74 37 - 20
75 15 - 8
76 19 - 10
78 39 - 20
80 16 - 8
82 41 - 20
84 21 - 10
85 17 - 8
86 43 - 20
88 33 - 15
90 18 - 8
92 23 - 10
94 47 - 20
95 19 - 8
98 49 - 20
100 15 - 6
104 39 - 15
105 21 - 8
108 27 - 10
110 33 - 12
115 23 - 8
116 29 - 10
120 15 - 5
124 31 - 10
128 16 - 5
130 39 - 12
132 33 - 10
135 27 - 8
136 17 - 5
140 21 - 6
144 18 - 5
145 29 - 8
148 37 - 10
150 15 - 4
152 19 - 5
155 31 - 8
156 39 - 10
160 16 - 4
164 41 - 10
165 33 - 8
168 21 - 5
170 17 - 4
172 43 - 10
180 18 - 4
184 23 - 5
185 37 - 8
188 47 - 10
190 19 - 4
195 39 - 8
196 49 - 10
200 15 - 3

Drilling / Tapping

Imperial Drill Chart

Number, Letter and Fractional Drills.

Size Inch Metric
80 0.014" 0.36mm
79 0.015" 0.38mm
1/64" 0.016" 0.41mm
78 0.016" 0.41mm
77 0.018" 0.46mm
76 0.020" 0.51mm
75 0.021" 0.53mm
74 0.023" 0.58mm
73 0.024" 0.61mm
72 0.025" 0.64mm
71 0.026" 0.66mm
70 0.028" 0.71mm
69 .0292" 0.74mm
68 0.031" 0.79mm
1/32" 0.031" 0.79mm
67 0.032" 0.81mm
66 0.033" 0.84mm
65 0.035" 0.89mm
64 0.036" 0.91mm
63 0.037" 0.94mm
62 0.038" 0.97mm
61 0.039" 0.99mm
60 0.040" 1.02mm
59 0.041" 1.04mm
58 0.042" 1.07mm
57 0.043" 1.09mm
56 0.047" 1.19mm
3/64" 0.047" 1.19mm
55 0.052" 1.32mm
54 0.055" 1.40mm
53 0.060" 1.52mm
1/16" 0.063" 1.60mm
52 0.064" 1.63mm
51 0.067" 1.70mm
50 0.070" 1.78mm
49 0.073" 1.85mm
48 0.076" 1.93mm
5/64" 0.078" 1.98mm
47 0.079" 2.00mm
46 0.081" 2.06mm
45 0.082" 2.08mm
44 0.086" 2.18mm
43 0.089" 2.26mm
42 0.094" 2.39mm
3/32" 0.094" 2.39mm
41 0.096" 2.44mm
40 0.098" 2.49mm
39 0.100" 2.54mm
38 0.102" 2.59mm
37 0.104" 2.64mm
36 0.107" 2.71mm
7/64" 0.109" 2.77mm
35 0.110" 2.80mm
34 .111" 2.82mm
33 0.113" 2.87mm
32 0.116" 2.95mm
31 0.120" 3.05mm
1/8" 0.125" 3.18mm
30 0.129" 3.28mm
29 0.136" 3.45mm
28 0.1405" 3.57mm
9/64" 0.1406" 3.57mm
27 0.144" 3.66mm
26 0.147" 3.73mm
25 0.150" 3.81mm
24 0.152" 3.86mm
23 0.154" 3.91mm
5/32" 0.156" 3.96mm
22 0.157" 3.99mm
21 0.159" 4.03mm
20 0.161" 4.09mm
19 0.166" 4.22mm
18 0.170" 4.32mm
11/64" 0.172" 4.37mm
17 0.173" 4.39mm
16 0.177" 4.50mm
15 0.180" 4.57mm
14 0.182" 4.62mm
13 0.185" 4.70mm
3/16" 0.188" 4.78mm
12 0.189" 4.80mm
11 0.191" 4.85mm
10 0.194" 4.93mm
9 0.196" 4.98mm
8 0.199" 5.05mm
7 0.201" 5.11mm
13/64" 0.203" 5.16mm
6 0.204" 5.18mm
5 0.206" 5.23mm
4 0.209" 5.31mm
3 0.213" 5.41mm
7/32" 0.219" 5.56mm
2 0.221" 5.61mm
1 0.228" 5.79mm
A 0.234" 5.94mm
15/64" 0.234" 5.94mm
B 0.238" 6.05mm
C 0.242" 6.15mm
D 0.246" 6.25mm
1/4" 0.250" 6.35mm
F 0.257" 6.53mm
G 0.261" 6.63mm
17/64" 0.266" 6.76mm
H 0.266" 6.76mm
I 0.272" 6.91mm
J 0.277" 7.04mm
K 0.281" 7.14mm
9/32" 0.281" 7.14mm
L 0.290" 7.37mm
M 0.295" 7.49mm
19/64" 0.297" 7.54mm
N 0.302" 7.67mm
5/16" 0.313" 7.95mm
O 0.316" 8.03mm
P 0.323" 8.20mm
21/64" 0.328" 8.33mm
Q 0.332" 8.43mm
R 0.339" 8.61mm
11/32" 0.344" 8.73mm
S 0.348" 8.84mm
T 0.358" 9.09mm
23/64" 0.359" 9.12mm
U 0.368" 9.35mm
3/8" 0.375" 9.53mm
V 0.377" 9.58mm
W 0.386" 9.80mm
25/64" 0.391" 9.93mm
X 0.397" 10.08mm
Y 0.404" 10.26mm
13/32" 0.406" 10.31mm
Z 0.413" 10.49mm
27/64" 0.422" 10.72mm
7/16" 0.438" 11.13mm
29/64" 0.453" 11.51mm
15/32" 0.469" 11.91mm
31/64" 0.484" 12.29mm
1/2" 0.500" 12.70mm
33/64" 0.516" 13.11mm
17/32" 0.531" 13.49mm
35/64" 0.547" 13.89mm
9/16" 0.563" 14.30mm
37/64" 0.578" 14.68mm
19/32" 0.594" 15.09mm
39/64" 0.609" 15.47mm
5/8" 0.625" 15.88mm
41/64" 0.641" 16.28mm
21/32" 0.656" 16.66mm
43/64" 0.672" 17.07mm
11/16" 0.688" 17.48mm
45/64" 0.703" 17.86mm
23/32" 0.719" 18.26mm
47/64" 0.734" 18.64mm
3/4" 0.750" 19.05mm
49/64" 0.766" 19.46mm
25/32" 0.781" 19.84mm
51/64" 0.797" 20.24mm
13/16" 0.813" 20.65mm
53/64" 0.828" 21.03mm
27/32" 0.844" 21.44mm
55/64" 0.859" 21.82mm
7/8" 0.875" 22.23mm
57/64" 0.891" 22.63mm
29/32" 0.906" 23.01mm
59/64" 0.922" 23.42mm
15/16" 0.938" 23.83mm
61/64" 0.953" 24.21mm
31/32" 0.969" 24.61mm
63/64" 0.984 24.99mm

Metric Tapping / Clearance Drills

Size Pitch Tapping Drill Clearance Drill
M2 0.40 1.60 2.40
M3 0.50 2.50 3.40
M4 0.70 3.30 4.50
M5 0.80 4.20 5.50
M6 1.00 5.00 6.60
M8 1.25 6.80 9.00
M10 1.50 8.50 11.00

BSF Tapping Drills

Ø " Tapping drill Ø mm Tapping drill Ø Imp
3/16 3.90 5/32"
7/32 4.60 No. 14
1/4 5.30 No. 4
9/32 6.00 Letter B
5/16 6.70 17/64"
3/8 8.20 Letter P
7/16 9.70 3/8"
1/2 11.00 7/16"
9/16 12.60 1/2"
5/8 14.00 35/64"
11/16 15.50 39/64"
3/4 16.75 21/32"
13/16 18.30 23/32"
7/8 19.75 25/32"
1 22.75 57/64"

BSW Tapping Drills

Ø " Tapping drill Ø mm Tapping drill Ø Imp
1/16 1.1 No. 56
3/32 1.8 No. 50
1/8 2.5 No. 40
5/32 3.1 No. 31
3/16 3.7 No. 27
7/32 4.4 No. 17
1/4 5.1 No. 8
5/16 6.5 Letter E
3/8 8.0 5/16"
7/16 9.2 23/64"
1/2 10.5 Letter Z

BA Screws

BA No. Tapping drill mm Clear drill mm
0 6 5.20 B 6.1
1 16 4.50 3 5.4
2 20 4.10 12 4.8
3 29 3.50 19 4.2
4 31 3.00 26 3.7
5 37 2.65 29 3.3
6 43 2.3 33 2.87
7 46 2.10 37 2.6
8 50 1.80 42 2.3
9 53 1.60 47 2.0
10 54 1.4 49 1.8
11 56 1.2 53 1.5
12 60 1.05 55 1.3
13 62 0.98 56 1.15
14 67 0.8 60 1.00
15 70 0.70 64 0.90
16 73 0.60 67 0.80

Fastenings Data

Countersunk Screws


dimensions are in mm

Size Pitch Skt Size Head Ø Head Height
M3 0.5 2.0 6.00 1.86
M4 0.70 2.5 8.00 2.48
M5 0.8 3,0 10,00 3.1
M6 1.0 4.0 12.00 3.72
M8 1.25 5.0 16.00 4.96
M10 1.5 6.0 20.00 6.2
M12 1.75 8.0 24.00 7.44

Cap Head Screws


dimensions are in mm

Size Pitch Skt Size Head Ø Head Height
M3 0.5 2.5 5.50 3.0
M4 0.70 3.0 7.00 4.0
M5 0.8 4.0 8.50 5.0
M6 1.0 5.0 10.00 6.0
M8 1.25 6.0 13.00 8.0
M10 1.5 8.0 16.00 10.0
M12 1.75 10.0 18.00 12.0

Torx Cap Head Screws


dimensions are in mm
Size Pitch Skt Size Head Ø Head Height
M2 0.4 X6 3.80 1.55
M3 0.5 X10 5.5 2.4
M4 0.70 X20 7.00 3.1
M5 0.8 X25 8.50 3.65
M6 1.0 X30 10.00 4.4
M8 1.25 X45 13.00 5.8

Button Head Screws

Size Pitch Skt Size Head Ø Head Height
M2 0.4 1.27 3.70 1.30
M3 0.5 2.0 5.70 1.65
M4 0.70 2.5 7.60 2.2
M5 0.8 3.0 9.50 2.75
M6 1.0 4.0 10.50 3.30
M8 1.25 5.0 14.00 4.40
M10 1.5 6.0 18.00 5.50
M12 1.75 8.0 21.00 6.60

BA Screws

BA No. tpi Ø (mm) Head Size
0 25.40 6.00 10.49
1 28.22 5.30 9.30
2 31.36 4.70 8.23
3 34.79 4.10 7.16
4 38.48 3.60 6.32
5 43.05 3.20 5.61
6 47.92 2.80 4.83
7 52.92 2.50 4.37
8 59.07 2.20 3.84
9 65.13 1.90 3.33
10 72.57 1.70 2.97
11 81.93 1.50 2.62
12 90.71 1.30 2.26
13 101.60 1.20 2.08
14 110.43 1.00 1.73
15 120.95 0.90 1.55
16 133.68 0.79 1.37

Nema Motor Sizes

Dimensions in mm - may vary.
NEMA 17 23 34 42
Shaft Ø 5.00 6.35 9.525 15.875
Shaft Length 24.00 20.57 31.75 35.05
Pilot Ø 22.00 38.10 73.02 55.52
Pilot Length 2.03 1.58 1.58 1.58
Mount PCD Ø 43.82 66.67 98.43 125.73
Bolt Hole Size 4-40 UNC 4.95 5.54 7.14
Bolt Hole Distance 30.99 47.14 69.60 88.90

Torque Conversion Tables

Newton Metres / Foot Pounds

NM Foot Pounds   Foot Pounds NM
0.1 0.074   0.1 0.136
0.2 0.148   0.2 0.271
0.3 0.221   0.3 0.407
0.4 0.295   0.4 0.542
0.5 0.369   0.5 0.678
0.6 0.443   0.6 0.813
0.7 0.516   0.7 0.949
0.8 0.590   0.8 1.085
0.9 0.664   0.9 1.220
1 0.738   1 1.356
2 1.475   2 2.712
3 2.213   3 4.067
4 2.950   4 5.423
5 3.688   5 6.779
6 4.425   6 8.135
7 5.163   7 9.491
8 5.900   8 10.846
9 6.638   9 12.202
10 7.376   10 13.558
11 8.113   11 14.914
12 8.851   12 16.270
13 9.588   13 17.625
14 10.326   14 18.981
15 11.063   15 20.337
16 11.801   16 21.693
17 12.539   17 23.049
18 13.276   18 24.404
19 14.014   19 25.760
20 14.751   20 27.116
21 15.489   21 28.472
22 16.226   22 29.828
23 16.964   23 31.183
24 17.701   24 32.539
25 18.439   25 33.895
26 19.177   26 35.251
27 19.914   27 36.607
28 20.652   28 37.962
29 21.389   29 39.318
30 22.127   30 40.674
31 22.864   31 42.030
32 23.602   32 43.386
33 24.339   33 44.741
34 25.077   34 46.097
35 25.815   35 47.453
36 26.552   36 48.809
37 27.290   37 50.165
38 28.027   38 51.520
39 28.765   39 52.876
40 29.502   40 54.232
41 30.240   41 55.588
42 30.978   42 56.944
43 31.715   43 58.299
44 32.453   44 59.655
45 33.190   45 61.011
46 33.928   46 62.367
47 34.665   47 63.723
48 35.403   48 65.078
49 36.140   49 66.434
50 36.878   50 67.790
51 37.616   51 69.146
52 38.353   52 70.502
53 39.091   53 71.857
54 39.828   54 73.213
55 40.566   55 74.569
56 41.303   56 75.925
57 42.041   57 77.281
58 42.778   58 78.636
59 43.516   59 79.992
60 44.254   60 81.348
61 44.991   61 82.704
62 45.729   62 84.060
63 46.466   63 85.415
64 47.204   64 86.771
65 47.941   65 88.127
66 48.679   66 89.483
67 49.417   67 90.839
68 50.154   68 92.194
69 50.892   69 93.550
70 51.629   70 94.906
71 52.367   71 96.262
72 53.104   72 97.618
73 53.842   73 98.973
74 54.579   74 100.329
75 55.317   75 101.685
76 56.055   76 103.041
77 56.792   77 104.397
78 57.530   78 105.752
79 58.267   79 107.108
80 59.005   80 108.464
81 59.742   81 109.820
82 60.480   82 111.176
83 61.217   83 112.531
84 61.955   84 113.887
85 62.693   85 115.243
86 63.430   86 116.599
87 64.168   87 117.955
88 64.905   88 119.310
89 65.643   89 120.666
90 66.380   90 122.022
91 67.118   91 123.378
92 67.856   92 124.734
93 68.593   93 126.089
94 69.331   94 127.445
95 70.068   95 128.801
96 70.806   96 130.157
97 71.543   97 131.513
98 72.281   98 132.868
99 73.018   99 134.224
100 73.756   100 135.580
101 74.494   101 136.936
102 75.231   102 138.292
103 75.969   103 139.647
104 76.706   104 141.003
105 77.444   105 142.359
106 78.181   106 143.715
107 78.919   107 145.071
108 79.656   108 146.426
109 80.394   109 147.782
110 81.132   110 149.138
111 81.869   111 150.494
112 82.607   112 151.850
113 83.344   113 153.205
114 84.082   114 154.561
115 84.819   115 155.917
116 85.557   116 157.273
117 86.295   117 158.629
118 87.032   118 159.984
119 87.770   119 161.340
120 88.507   120 162.696
121 89.245   121 164.052
122 89.982   122 165.408
123 90.720   123 166.763
124 91.457   124 168.119
125 92.195   125 169.475
126 92.933   126 170.831
127 93.670   127 172.187
128 94.408   128 173.542
129 95.145   129 174.898
130 95.883   130 176.254
131 96.620   131 177.610
132 97.358   132 178.966
133 98.095   133 180.321
134 98.833   134 181.677
135 99.571   135 183.033
136 100.308   136 184.389

AWG to mm Chart

AWG # Ø mm Area mm2
0000 (4/0) 11.684 107.219
000 (3/0) 10.405 85.029
00 (2/0) 9.2658 67.4309
0 (1/0) 8.2515 53.4751
1 7.3481 42.4077
2 6.5437 33.6308
3 5.8273 26.6705
4 5.1894 21.1506
5 4.6213 16.7732
6 4.1154 13.3018
7 3.6649 10.5488
8 3.2636 8.3656
9 2.9064 6.6342
10 2.5882 5.2612
11 2.3048 4.1723
12 2.0525 3.3088
13 1.8278 2.6240
14 1.6277 2.0809
15 1.4495 1.6502
16 1.2908 1.3087
17 1.1495 1.0378
18 1.0237 0.8230
19 0.9116 0.6527
20 0.8118 0.5176
21 0.7229 0.4105
22 0.6438 0.3255
23 0.5733 0.2582
24 0.5106 0.2047
25 0.4547 0.1624
26 0.4049 0.1288
27 0.3606 0.1021
28 0.3211 0.0810
29 0.2859 0.0642
30 0.2546 0.0509
31 0.2268 0.0404
32 0.2019 0.0320
33 0.1798 0.0254
34 0.1601 0.0201
35 0.1426 0.0160
36 0.1270 0.0127
37 0.1131 0.0100
38 0.1007 0.0080
39 0.0897 0.0063
40 0.0799 0.0050

SWG to mm Chart

SWG # Ø mm Area mm2
7/0 12.700 126,677
6/0 11.786 109.092
5/0 10.973 94.564
4/0 10.160 81.073
3/0 9.449 70.120
2/0 8.839 61.364
0 8.230 53.192
1 7.620 45.604
2 7.010 38.599
3 6.401 32.178
4 5.893 27.273
5 5.385 22.774
6 4.877 18.679
7 4.470 15.696
8 4.064 12.971
9 3.658 10.507
10 3.251 8.302
11 2.946 6.818
12 2.642 5.481
13 2.337 4.289
14 2.032 3.243
15 1.829 2.627
16 1.626 2.076
17 1.422 1.589
18 1.219 1.168
19 1.016 0.811
20 0.914 0.657
21 0.813 0.519
22 0.711 0.397
23 0.610 0.292
24 0.559 0.245
25 0.508 0.203
26 0.457 0.164
27 0.417 0.136
28 0.376 0.111
29 0.345 0.0937
30 0.315 0.0779
31 0.295 0.0682
32 0.274 0.0591
33 0.254 0.0507
34 0.234 0.0429
35 0.213 0.0358
36 0.193 0.0293
37 0.173 0.0234
38 0.152 0.0182
39 0.132 0.0137
40 0.122 0.0117

Steel Types

BS970:1955 BS970:1991 European SAE
EN1A 230M07 11SMn30 1113
EN3B 070M20 C22 1020
EN8 080A42 C40 1040
EN16T 605M36T - -
EN24T 817M40T 34CrNiMo6 4340
EN36 655M13 18CrNiMo7-6 8630

Sheet Metal Weight Calculators

Steel

Enter Length-mm:
Enter width-mm:
Enter thickness-mm:
Weight in Kg:

Brass

Enter Length-mm:
Enter width-mm:
Enter thickness-mm:
Weight in Kg:

Aluminium

Enter Length-mm:
Enter width-mm:
Enter thickness-mm:
Weight in Kg:

Lead

Enter Length-mm:
Enter width-mm:
Enter thickness-mm:
Weight in Kg:

Loco Design Aids

Loco Speed Calculator

Calculate loco speed and gearing.

Enter required loco speed - mph:
Enter motor rated speed - rpm:
Enter tyre diameter - ":
Enter number of teeth on motor gear:
 
Axle Speed - rpm:
Required reduction gear ratio - :1
Number of teeth on driven gear:

12V Automotive Battery Specifications

All dimensions in mm.

Code Ah CCA L W H Kg Term
004 50 400 205 175 225 14 T1
005 60 450 230 175 225 16 T1
008 50 400 205 175 225 14 T1
009 30 260 167 127 227 9 T3
012 45 360 207 175 190 13 T1
012T 55 460 207 175 190 13 T1
014 60 450 230 175 225 16 T1
017 88 730 354 175 190 23 T1
019 95 850 354 175 190 25 T1
019T 100 900 354 175 190 24 T1
020 110 850 392 175 190 26 T1
024 90 740 352 175 175 22 T1
027 60 540 243 175 190 16 T1
027T 62 550 243 175 190 16 T1
030 70 570 258 173 225 19 T1
031 70 570 258 173 225 19 T1
037 35 265 239 133 206 11 T4
038 35 265 239 133 206 11 T1
048 45 350 220 135 225 13 T1
049 45 350 220 135 225 13 T1
053 45 380 238 129 227 13 T1
054 33 260 187 127 220 9 T1/T3
055 33 260 187 127 220 9 T1/T3
056 36 330 187 127 220 11 T1/T3
057 45 380 238 129 227 13 T1
063 45 380 207 175 175 14 T1
063T 47 425 207 175 175 14 T1
065 54 470 243 175 175 14 T1
069 70 570 270 175 205 20 T1
072 70 570 265 175 205 20 T1
075 60 550 243 175 175 16 T1
075T 60 590 243 175 175 16 T1
077 45 380 207 175 190 12 T1
078 59 495 243 175 190 15 T1
085 45 380 207 175 175 12 T4F
086 75 650 278 175 190 19 T1
093 48 500 207 175 175 13 T4F
095 68 650 278 175 175 18 T4F
096 75 650 278 175 190 19 T1
096T 80 680 278 175 190 19 T1
097 59 510 243 175 175 14 T4F
100 70 650 278 175 175 18 T1
100T 70 680 278 175 175 18 T1
102 38 330 160 175 190 10 T1
110 75 680 317 175 175 20 T1
110T 80 720 317 175 175 21 T1
111 50 530 236 182 178 16 T1
113 50 530 236 182 178 16 T1
156 45 380 238 129 227 13 T3
202 38 330 175 175 190 10 T1
334 95 700 303 174 222 24 T1
335 95 700 303 174 222 24 T1
412P 84 480 158 165 219 12 T1
895 26 200 187 127 181 7 T4
896 26 200 187 127 181 7 T4

12V AGM Battery Specifications

All dimensions in mm.

Voltage / Capacity Length (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm) Weight (Kg)
6V 7Ah 151 34 97.5 1.35
6V 12Ah 151 50 95 1.8
6V 14Ah 108 71 140 2.37
12V 12Ah 151 98 95 3.6
12V 15Ah 151 98 94 4.2
12V 18Ah 180 76 167 6.2
12V 20Ah 181 77 167 5.9
12V 22Ah 181 77 167 6.2
12V 26Ah 166 175 125 8.2
12V 33Ah 195 130 159 10.2
12V 40Ah 198 166 171 13.2
12V 55Ah 229 138 210 18
12V 70Ah 260 169 210 22.5
12V 90Ah 260 169 210 24.5
12V 110Ah 306 169 210 26
12V 125Ah 328 172 222 37.5
12V 160Ah 340 173 280 47.5
12V 200Ah 530 209 219 54
12V 230Ah 522 240 240 60
12V 260Ah 521 269 208 69

Bar-Litre Calculator

Calculates the bar-litres of a boiler from
the boiler capacity and working pressure.

Enter the boiler capacity - litres:
Enter the working pressure of the boiler - psi:
 
Bar-Litres:

Scaled Dimension Tables

Imperial Standard Gauge to 5" Gauge

Scaled dimensions for standard to 5" gauge.
Imperial Input.
Scale: 11.3:1

inches inches mm
1/8 0.011 0.281
1/4 0.022 0.562
3/8 0.033 0.843
1/2 0.044 1.124
5/8 0.055 1.405
3/4 0.066 1.686
7/8 0.077 1.967
1 0.088 2.248
2 0.177 4.496
3 0.265 6.743
4 0.354 8.991
5 0.442 11.239
6 0.531 13.487
7 0.619 15.735
8 0.708 17.982
9 0.796 20.230
10 0.885 22.478
11 0.973 24.726
12 1.062 26.973
13 1.150 29.221
14 1.239 31.469
15 1.327 33.717
16 1.416 35.965
17 1.504 38.212
18 1.593 40.460
19 1.681 42.708
20 1.770 44.956
21 1.858 47.204
22 1.947 49.451
23 2.035 51.699
24 2.124 53.947
25 2.212 56.195
26 2.301 58.442
27 2.389 60.690
28 2.478 62.938
29 2.566 65.186
30 2.655 67.434
31 2.743 69.681
32 2.832 71.929
33 2.920 74.177
34 3.009 76.25
35 3.097 78.673
36 3.186 80.920
37 3.274 83.168
38 3.363 85.416
39 3.451 87.664
40 3.540 89.912
41 3.628 92.159
42 3.717 94.407
43 3.805 96.665
44 3.894 98.903
45 3.982 101.150
46 4.071 103.398
47 4.159 105.646
48 4.248 107.894
49 4.336 110.142
50 4.425 112.389
feet inches mm
1 1.062 26.973
2 2.124 53.947
3 3.186 80.920
4 4.248 107.894
5 5.310 134.867
6 6.372 161.841
7 7.434 188.814
8 8.496 215.788
9 9.558 242.761
10 10.619 269.735
11 11.681 296.708
12 12.743 323.681
13 13.805 350.655
14 14.867 377.628
15 15.929 404.602
16 16.991 431.575
17 18.053 458.549
18 19.115 485.522
19 20.177 512.496
20 21.239 539.469
21 22.301 566.443
22 23.363 593.416
23 24.425 620.390
24 25.487 647.363
25 26.549 674.336
26 27.611 701.310
27 28.673 728.283
28 29.735 755.257
29 30.796 782.230
30 31.858 809.204
31 32.920 836.177
32 33.982 863.151
33 35.044 890.124
34 36.106 917.098
35 37.168 944.071
36 38.230 971.044
37 39.292 998.018
38 40.354 1024.991
39 41.416 1051.965
40 42.478 1078.938
41 43.540 1105.912
42 44.602 1132.885
43 45.664 1159.859
44 46.726 1186.832
45 47.788 1213.806
46 48.850 1240.779
47 49.912 1267.752
48 50.973 1294.726
49 52.035 1321699
50 53.097 1348.673
51 54.159 1375.646
52 55.221 1402.620
53 56.283 1429.593
54 57.345 1456.567
55 58.407 1483.540
56 59.469 1510.514
57 60.531 1537.487
58 61.593 1564.460
59 62.655 1591.434
60 63.717 1618.407
61 64.779 1645.381
62 65.841 1672.354
63 66.903 1699.328
64 67.965 1726.301
65 69.027 1753.275
66 70.088 1780.248
67 71.150 1807.222
68 72.212 1834.195
69 73.274 1861.169
70 74.336 1888.142
71 75.398 1915.115
72 76.460 1942.089
73 77.522 1969.062
74 78.584 1996.036
75 79.646 2023.009
76 80.708 2049.983
77 81.770 2076.956
78 82.832 2103.930
79 83.894 2130.903
80 84.956 2157.877
81 86.018 2184.850
82 87.080 2211.823
83 88.142 2238.797
84 89.204 2265.770
85 90.265 2292.744
86 91.327 2319.717
87 92.389 2346.691
88 93.451 2373.664
89 94.513 2400.638
90 95.575 2427.611
91 96.637 2454.585
92 97.699 2481.558
93 98.761 2508.531
94 99.823 2535.505
95 100.885 2562.478
96 101.947 2589.452
97 103.009 2616.425
98 104.071 2643.399
99 105.133 2670.372
100 106.195 2697.346

2' Narrow Gauge to 5" Gauge

Scaled dimensions:
2' narrow gauge to 5" gauge.
Imperial Input.
Scale: 4.8:1 - 2.5"/ft - 63.5mm/ft

inches inches mm
1/8 0.026 0.66
1/4 0.052 1.32
3/8 0.078 1.98
1/2 0.104 2.64
5/8 0.130 3.30
3/4 0.156 3.96
7/8 0.182 4.62
1 0.208 5.29
2 0.417 10.58
3 0.625 15.88
4 0.833 21.17
5 1.042 26.46
6 1.250 31.75
7 1.458 37.04
8 1.667 42.33
9 1.875 47.63
10 2.083 52.92
11 2.292 58.21
12 2.500 63.50
13 2.708 68.79
14 2.917 74.08
15 3.125 79.38
16 3.333 84.67
17 3.542 89.96
18 3.750 95.25
19 3.958 100.54
20 4.167 105.83
21 4.375 111.13
22 4.583 116.42
23 4.792 121.71
24 5.000 127.00
25 5.208 132.29
26 5.417 137.58
27 5.625 142.88
28 5.833 148.17
29 6.042 153.46
30 6.250 158.75
31 6.458 164.04
32 6.667 169.33
33 6.875 174.63
34 7.083 179.92
35 7.292 185.21
36 7.500 190.50
37 7.708 195.79
38 7.917 201.08
39 8.125 206.38
40 8.333 211.67
41 8.542 216.96
42 8.750 222.25
43 8.958 227.54
44 9.167 232.83
45 9.375 238.13
46 9.583 243.42
47 9.792 248.71
48 10.000 254.00
49 10.208 259.29
50 10.417 264.58
feet inches mm
1 2.500 63.50
2 5.000 127.00
3 7.500 190.50
4 10.000 254.00
5 12.500 317.50
6 15.000 381.00
7 17.500 444.50
8 20.000 508.00
9 22.500 571.50
10 25.000 635.00
11 27.500 698.50
12 30.000 762.00
13 32.500 825.50
14 35.000 889.00
15 37.500 952.50
16 40.000 1016.00
17 42.500 1079.50
18 45.000 1143.00
19 47.500 1206.50
20 50.000 1270.00
21 52.500 1333.50
22 55.000 1397.00
23 57.500 1460.50
24 60.000 1524.00
25 62.500 1587.50
26 65.000 1651.00
27 67.500 1714.50
28 70.000 1778.00
29 72.500 1841.50
30 75.000 1905.00
31 77.500 1968.50
32 80.000 2032.00
33 82.500 2095.50
34 85.000 2159.00
35 87.500 2222.50
36 90.000 2286.00
37 92.500 2349.50
38 95.000 2413.00
39 97.500 2476.50
40 100.00 2540.00
41 102.50 2603.50
42 105.00 2667.00
43 107.500 2730.50
44 110.00 2794.00
45 112.500 2857.50
46 115.00 2921.00
47 117.500 2984.50
48 120.000 3048.00
49 122.500 3111.50
50 125.000 3175.00
51 127.500 3238.50
52 130.000 3302.00
53 132.500 3365.50
54 135.000 3429.00
55 137.500 3492.50
56 140.000 3556.00
57 142.500 3619.50
58 145.000 3683.00
59 147.500 3746.50
60 150.000 3810.00
61 152.500 3873.50
62 155.000 3937.00
63 157.500 4000.50
64 160.000 4064.00
65 162.500 4127.50
66 165.000 4191.00
67 167.500 4254.50
68 170.000 4318.00
69 172.500 4381.50
70 175.000 4445.00
71 177.500 4508.50
72 180.000 4572.00
73 182.500 4635.50
74 185.000 4699.00
75 187.500 4762.50
76 190.000 4826.00
77 192.500 4889.50
78 195.000 4953.00
79 197.500 5016.50
80 200.000 5080.00
81 202.500 5143.50
82 205.000 5207.00
83 207.500 5270.50
84 210.750 5334.00
85 212.500 5397.50
86 215.000 5461.00
87 217.500 5524.50
88 220.000 5588.00
89 222.500 5651.50
90 225.000 5715.00
91 227.500 5778.50
92 230.000 5842.00
93 232.500 5905.50
94 235.000 5969.00
95 237.500 6032.50
96 240.000 6096.00
97 242.500 6159.50
98 245.000 6223.00
99 247.500 6286.50
100 250.000 6350.00

Whitworth Bolts, Head Sizes - Scaled Down

Scaled dimensions to 3 1/2"
Early; pre-1940

Bolt Ø Head Size "  Scaled Head Size "  Head Size mm Nearest BA Size
0.500 0.920  > 0.057 1.448 15
0.625 1.100  > 0.068 1.731 14
0.750 1.300  > 0.081 2.045 13
1.000 1.670  > 0.103 2.628 11
1.250 2.050  > 0.127 3.226 9

Scaled dimensions to 5"
Early; pre-1940

Bolt Ø Head Size "  Scaled Head Size "  Head Size mm Nearest BA Size
0.500 0.920  > 0.081 2.068 13
0.625 1.100  > 0.097 2.473 11
0.750 1.300  > 0.115 2.922 10
1.000 1.670  > 0.148 3.754 8
1.250 2.050  > 0.181 4.608 6

Scaled dimensions to 7 1/4"
Early; pre-1940

Bolt Ø Head Size "  Scaled Head Size "  Head Size mm Nearest BA Size
0.500 0.920  > 0.118 2.999 10
0.625 1.100  > 0.141 3.585 8
0.750 1.300  > 0.167 4.237 7
1.000 1.670  > 0.214 5.443 5
1.250 2.050  > 0.263 6.682 4


Scaled dimensions to 3 1/2"
Late; post 1940

Bolt Ø Head Size "  Scaled Head Size "  Head Size mm Nearest BA Size
0.500 0.820  > 0.051 1.290 16
0.625 1.010  > 0.063 1.589 15
0.750 1.200  > 0.074 1.888 14
1.000 1.480  > 0.092 2.329 11
1.250 1.860  > 0.115 2.927 10

Scaled dimensions to 5"
Late; post 1940

Bolt Ø Head Size "  Scaled Head Size "  Head Size mm Nearest BA Size
0.500 0.820  > 0.073 1.843 14
0.625 1.010  > 0.089 2.270 12
0.750 1.200  > 0.106 2.697 11
1.000 1.480  > 0.131 3.327 9
1.250 1.860  > 0.165 4.181 7

Scaled dimensions to 7 1/4"
Late; post 1940

Bolt Ø Head Size "  Scaled Head Size "  Head Size mm Nearest BA Size
0.500 0.820  > 0.105 2.673 11
0.625 1.010  > 0.130 3.292 9
0.750 1.200  > 0.154 3.911 8
1.000 1.480  > 0.190 4.824 6
1.250 1.860  > 0.239 6.062 4

Scaled Rivet Sizes

Full Size Dimensions

Shank 
Ø "
Shank 
Ø mm
Head Ø " Head Ø mm Head Height " Head Height mm
0.500" 12.700 0.625" 15.875 0.406" 10.312
0.625" 15.875 1.094" 27.788 0.500" 12.700
0.75" 19.05 1.312" 33.324 0.593" 15.062
1" 25.400 1.750" 44.450 0.781" 19.838
1.250" 31.75 2.188" 55.575 0.985" 25.019

Scaled to 3 1/2"

Shank 
Ø "
Shank 
Ø mm
Head Ø " Head Ø mm Head Height " Head Height mm
0.031" 0.787 0.054" 1.377 0.025" 0.639
0.039" 0.983 0.068" 1.721 0.031" 0.787
0.046" 1.180 0.081" 2.064 0.037" 0.933
0.062" 1.573 0.108" 2.754 0.048" 1.229
0.077" 1.967 0.136" 3.443 0.061" 1.550

Scaled to 5"

Shank 
Ø "
Shank 
Ø mm
Head Ø " Head Ø mm Head Height " Head Height mm
0.044" 1.124 0.077" 1.967 0.036" 0.913
0.055" 1.405 0.097" 2.459 0.044" 1.124
0.066" 1.686 0.116" 2.949 0.052" 1.333
0.088" 2.248 0.155" 3.934 0.069" 1.756
0.111" 2.810 0.194" 4.918 0.087" 2.214

Scaled to 7 1/4"

Shank 
Ø "
Shank 
Ø mm
Head Ø " Head Ø mm Head Height " Head Height mm
0.064" 1.630 0.112" 2.852 0.052" 1.323
0.080" 2.037 0.140" 3.566 0.064" 1.630
0.096" 2.444 0.168" 4.276 0.076" 1.933
0.128" 3.259 0.225" 5.704 0.100" 2.546
0.160" 4.074 0.281" 7.131 0.126" 3.210

Snap Rivet Data

Ø

Ø mm Ø Head mm Head Height mm
1/16" 1.588 2.769 1.194
5/64" 1.981 3.480 1.499
3/32" 2.388 4.166 1.778
7/64" 2.769 4.851 2.083
1/8" 3.175 5.563 2.388
9/64" 3.581 6.248 2.667
5/32" 3.962 6.934 2.972
1.6mm 1.6 2.8 1.0
2.0mm 2.0 3.5 1.2
2.5mm 2.5 4.4 1.5
3.0mm 3.0 5.3 1.8
3.5mm 3.5 6.1 2.1
4.0mm 4.0 7.0 2.4

Projects

Locomotives

Tin Turtle


12th July 2018

My first model is of a World War One Trench Tractor, affectionately know as a Tin Turtle. Manufactured by The Motor Rail and Tramcar Company Ltd., then Simplex, for the War Department Light Railways of the First World War. These were made in three versions, an 'Open' model, a 'Protected' model and an 'Armoured' model. My model is of the 'Protected' type.

The locos were built to move men and munitions to the front line and were designed to tow 10-15 tons at 5mph. They ran on 600mm gauge track, which on 5" gauge equates to a scale of 4.7:1.

The reason I decided to make this model is that this year - 2018 - is 100 years from the end of World War One and I wanted to build something to support the 'Battles for Victory' weekend, held on the 14th and 15th of July in Ellington Park in Ramsgate. I almost didn't get the loco completed in time, but in the end, finished it a week before the event.

I built the model from looking at as many photos as possible and one line drawing which gave me the rivet detail - no plans exist, or should I say I could find none. It is powered by a 24V 500W electric motor and using a cheap controller for an electric scooter. It is early days yet, but at the time of writing it is performing very well.


20th August 2018

Running on Canterbury's track on their open day on the 11th August 2018 - A great day!

27th August 2019

I no longer own the Tin Turtle. During this year's open day at the Canterbury track, a deal was reached and I sold the loco. The weather wasn't good, so consequently the event wasn't very well supported, but it meant that the Tin Turtle was the first loco on the track and the last loco off. It ran for 5 hours 45 minutes flawlessly, with the batteries still showing over 24V when I took it off the track!

I find driving, although enjoyable, to be of lesser pleasure than creating a loco, especially one where no drawings exist, or should I say, where I could find none.

I have started work on a Class 13 - two Class 08 shunters permanently coupled together. No dawings exist for this class of loco, so it is an interesting project. However, coming to my senses, I realised that although the project has merit, the storage and transportation of the finished project will be very difficult, so I have put it to one side for the tie being.

Now I no longer have the Tin Turtle, I find myself needing to build a new loco, one that is small, easily transportable and one that I can lift and carry by myself.

I have decided on a steam outline, but electric loco - an A1X Terrier and a Guards Van or wagon to carry the batteries.

A1X Terrier


27th August 2019

The image is of an 'Island' version of the Terrier which has an extended coal bunker and no toolbox.

The only plans I have found for a Terrier are the ones published in Model Engineer starting in 1963. These plans are for the A1 Terrier, Boxhill and do not show the differences between an A1 and an A1X, or between the 'regular' Terrier and an 'Island' version, so I have lots of research to do to get the bodywork right.

I have already drawn the frames and buffer beams and had these laser cut, so the project is under way...

Other Projects

CNC Engraver Mini-Mill

27th August 2018

The first project I'm going to be documenting here is the build of a CNC engraver. The image is a 3D CAD model of part of what it will look like, when I build it. I am, however, well into the planning and design phase. It is deliberately going to be a small machine and I'm building it for two reasons; firstly to create locomotive nameplates - I prefer them machined rather than etched - and secondly to build a relatively inexpensive CNC machine as a precursor to building something bigger.

I'm hoping that this one will be man enough to machine more than just brass or aluminium for nameplates. I intend to make the working area about 290mm x 50mm, which means it will be big enough to hold - and hopefully machine - the coupling rods for the Q1 I'm building.

The motor driving the spindle is a model aircraft outrunner motor that can produce a lot more power than is required to machine brass or aluminium. That said, I have yet to find out its capabilities in machining steel.

I shall use an Arduino Uno, with a stepper motor shield fitted, to control the engraver and am using Fusion 360 to create the necessary 3D CAD files for any parts I wish to machine. I believe I have all of the parts I need for the control side of the project and am working on creating a suitable housing. I have yet to start making the mechanical parts, but hope to soon. Having just finished the Tin Turtle, I'm taking some time off...


6th October 2018

A complete change of direction.  The engraver is now a mini-mill... After much thought and messing about in CAD, both 2D and 3D, I have come up with a design for a mini-milling machine... The images below show the framework of the machine, but none of the Axes.


I now have all the parts created in 3D CAD and exported as 'step' files and a friend of mine is going to CNC them for me. I'm a firm believer that, in order to have a mill capable of producing accurate parts, it must itself be accurate, hence getting the parts CNC machined.

The base plate is 35mm thick aluminium and all the other panels are 15mm thick, so it should be a rigid machine. Working area should be 420mm x 150mm. The spindle will utilise an Outrunner Motor, coupled to an ER11 Collet Chuck.

Having thought I had completed the design, I looked at the back of the assembled machine (in 3D CAD) and realised that if I added a horizontal plate, not only would it add rigidity, but it would also give me a space to mount the control electronics and / or a power supply - so it was back into CAD to add the plate.

I have deliberately left a gap below the rear plate, so I can blow any debris straight out the back of the machine - cleaning it would have been more difficult had I made the plate fit against the base plate.

I'm now waiting for some spare machine time to be available, to get my parts produced...


1st December 2018

At last there has been some available machining time and the first operation of machining the base plate and most of the other main panels has been completed. Several of the parts require futher operations to drill and tap holes in the edges of the parts. There are still a few parts that have not yet been machined. It has taken quite a while to get to this stage, but I'm not complaining, I know they'll be done as soon as machine time becomes available.


20th May 2019

This morning, I collected several of the machined parts for the mini-mill and I have de-burred them, tapped lots of holes and assembled the parts. With a little luck, I'll get the remaining parts soon and be able to complete the assembly. The structure is very rigid already and I still have another couple of bracing panels to fit. Time to start looking at the control electronics!


smart car

Stiffer Anti-Roll Bar

Rationale: I wanted to improve the handling and stop the car dropping a front corner when cornering fast.

The later 450 models had a larger diameter anti-roll bar, which stiffens the front end by about 60%, a very worthwhile modification.

Tools Required:

10mm spanner
16mm spanner - ideally a combination or
ring spanner - a socket cannot be used!
18mm spanner - ideally a socket.
T25 angled Torx driver.
Wheel brace - 15mm socket and bar.
Jack and axle stands.

Parts Required:

Anti-Roll Bar from late 450.
Part Number: Q0006924V010000000

2 x Mounting Bushes.
Part Number: SQ0009247V002000000

These part numbers are the ones quoted to me by Mercedes, but do not assume that they are accurate - use them as a guide, but get them confirmed when you order the parts!

Time taken: approximately one hour, not knowing what I was doing, probably 40 minutes now I know how to do it!

Method:

Loosen the front wheels, jack the front of the car up and secure on axle stands.



Remove the wheels

At the front of the wheel arches, locate and remove the screws - one each side - that hold the under tray in place. This requires a 10mm spanner. Note that these are not very tight, so as not to crush and split the plastic.

The front spoiler clips onto the front edge of the under tray, release the clips, ease the spoiler forward and pull the under tray down to release it. Note that below where you just removed the screws, there is a slot into which the front edge of the under tray fits. On reassembly failing to fit the edge of the under tray into this slot will prevent the screw holes aligning.

Using a 16mm spanner, loosen the bottom nuts on the drop links. To enable the nut to undo without the bolt turning, insert a T25 angled Torx driver into the end of the bolt. Once the nuts have been removed, pop the drop links out of the bar.

Ease down the under tray and using a 18mm spanner, remove the nuts securing the anti-roll bar to the cross member.

Once the nuts are removed, the outer part of the clamp should be easily removed. The back part of the clamp should be removed too and this is done by easing the anti roll bar forward and then rotating the rear clamp until it comes free.

The anti-roll bar should then be removed by dropping the left hand end (if sitting in the car) first. This should allow the bar to slip past a bracket that otherwise interferes with it.

Lay the old and new bars on the floor and you will note two main differences between them.

Firstly, the bars are different shapes as show below. Fit the bar the way up shown in the photos...

Secondly, you may notice that the 450 bar is slightly wider. This doesn’t seem to create any problems.

Fit the new mounting bushes to the 450 bar, using the original bar for position and orientation, then fit the uprated bar by reversing the strip down instructions.

Clearance between the 450 anti-roll bar and the steering track rod is reduced, but this is not a problem. Make sure the mounting nuts and drop link nuts are tightened securely.

Now take the car out and enjoy better handling!

Disable EGR Valve

Note: the 'Disable EGR Valve" page only relates to the model 452 cdi with the 45bhp engine...

OK, so what is an EGR valve and what does it do?

Here is an extract on EGR deletion from Wikipedia:
EGR deletion in diesel engines is considered justifiable by a wide range of people, including the environmentally conscious.
Although deleting the EGR system results in increased NOx level; hydrocarbon emissions, particulates, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are drastically reduced
Furthermore, EGR deletion results in an increase in fuel economy as high as 25%!
Exhaust gas recirculated back into the cylinders adds wear-inducing contaminants and increases engine oil acidity, which can result in an inefficient, poorly running engine.
The increased level of soot also creates the need for diesel particulate filters to prevent environmental contamination.


As you can see, disabling the EGR valve is no bad thing!

What prompted me to disable it?

I have a high flow air filter fitted and I decided that it needed cleaning after six months of use. In order to remove the air filter, I had to remove the 90° rubber hose that links from the turbo intercooler to the EGR valve ’T’ piece. When I removed this I was horrified by the amount of soot there was both in the rubber hose and in the aluminium casting of the ’T’ piece.

How to disable it? My first thought was to just fit a blanking plate, but after discussing this on the forum, I discovered that I couldn’t do that. The 451 cdi has a MAF (Mass Air Flow) sensor that lets the ECU know how much air is flowing into the engine. When the EGR valve is activated and exhaust gasses are flowing into the inlet manifold, the MAF should see a reduced air flow.

If the EGR was blanked off, the MAF wouldn’t see this reduced air flow and the ECU would throw an error and probably put the car into limp mode....

Fortunately there is an easy fix for this and I have to thank Tolsen for giving me a link to a Mercedes forum where members have devised a very simple circuit to fool the ECU into believing that the MAF is seeing less flow when the EGR is activated.

The circuit is very simple, consisting of two 1/4W resistors and a rectifier diode - all readily available from Maplins - and works as follows.

To open the EGR valve, the ECU earths the EGR solenoid valve signal wire, thereby activating the solenoid valve which opens the EGR valve.

To disable EGR, all that is needed is to disconnect the wiring to the solenoid valve, but as previously discussed doing so creates errors in the ECU.

With the solenoid valve disconnected, the 1K resistor allows the ECU to see a small current flow through it, as it would if the solenoid was connected. Without this resistor the ECU would be short circuiting the 12V straight to ground and that would be a very bad thing!

The 510R resistor allows some of the MAF signal voltage to bleed to ground through the solenoid valve signal wire when the EGR circuit is active, thereby dropping the MAF voltage and fooling the ECU into believing that the EGR is working. The diode is there to block the 12V from affecting the MAF signal.

To connect the circuit to the car....

The solenoid valve that activates the EGR valve is just to the right of the air filter box. Disconnect the plug that goes into this unit and find the green / lilac wire. This is the EGR valve signal wire shown at the top of the diagram above, where the wire from the top of the circuit has to be attached.

The MAF sensor is fitted in the air filter outlet tube (from the air filter lid). It has a three terminal connector, the connections being a 12V ignition switched supply, an earth and a signal wire.

The ignition switched 12V supply - red / green wire - connects to 1K resistor in the above circuit.

The blue wire - the MAF signal, wire - is connected to the 510R resistor - the lower connection in the circuit above. Should you wish to perform this modification, the best way of making the connections is to splice into the wires and solder the connections.

As the circuit requires soldering too, I would strongly recommend getting a competent person to assemble and fit this modification.

I made up the circuit and attached three wires to it, then insulated the components with heat shrink sleeving, after which I folded them into a line and bound them all together using insulating tape, being careful to ensure that all the ends were sealed to prevent moisture ingress. I then spliced the wires into the appropriate places and insulated them.

Finally, I fixed the circuit to the air filter output hose with a cable tie to keep the assembly from flapping about - job done!

With the modification in place, the engine is smoother and fuel economy from cold is noticeably better....


Although I no longer have the car, I have retained information on some modifications made to my 45bhp smart passion, as these consistently receive a high volume of visitors...

Please assume a standard disclaimer. You should only undertake a task if you are competent to do so and if it goes wrong, don’t blame me! These entries show you what I did, nothing more is implied.


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Clementine-Crafts - Crafting items for your projects.
Ramsgate and District Model Engineering Club
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Owl Castings - 3D CAD and Casting Service for Model Engineers.


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Last Updated 24th May 2019